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小兒嘔吐須知
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#993
windy_88
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小兒嘔吐須知 10 年, 5 月前 評分: 0
小朋友突然嘔個不停,確定會令家長們方寸大亂,頓時不知怎樣處理才好。其實幼兒嘔吐的情況頗為常見,而嘔吐可以由大哭、吃得太多、咳嗽,甚至是發燒生病等問題引起,因此家長應該留意小朋友的狀況,如果小孩嘔吐一、兩次便停止,又沒有其他不適,一般也不會有大問題,若然孩子的嘔吐持續不止、嘔吐物帶血、有啡色渣滓、頭部曾經受傷,又或出現其他徵狀,例如皮膚變乾、神情呆滯或發燒等,便要盡快求醫或到急症室診治。

不斷嘔吐致缺水
嘔吐本身是不會對身體健康有大損害,但當遇上孩子嘔吐時,家長是需要留意數項要點。首先父母需知道持續不斷的嘔吐是可以引致身體缺水,尤其是較弱小幼兒。因為他們尚未懂得表達口渴的需要或未能自行飲水補充,故此亦較易受脫水問題威脅。此外嘔吐物有機會堵塞小兒氣管,引致呼吸困難,故此當幼兒嘔吐時,應將他們置於復原臥式或讓孩子坐起使其上身向前傾,幫助他們把嘔吐物吐出。切忌讓他們仰臥,以免嘔吐物有機會誤入氣管。此外,家長們不應自行讓孩子吃止嘔藥,因為孩子未必可以將其順利吞服,二來亦可能會壓制病徵,即使問題惡化時家長 也難以察覺。

另一方面,有些小朋友在吃藥期間會因為未可接受藥物的味道而嘔吐,若然有這種情況出現,家長最好請主診醫生,千萬不要因此讓孩子停藥,否則可能會影響病情。在子女嘔吐後,父母該為他們補充足夠的水分,但不應因為擔心子女肚子餓,而趕快餵他們吃東西,皆因此舉可能會再次激發不適,引發第二輪的嘔吐。嘔吐後的最佳的處理為暫時禁食,即使喝水也最好小口小口地餵食。直至嘔吐停止的一至兩小時後,才讓孩子先吃一些易消化的食物,待胃部適應後再恢復正常飲食。

可輕輕摟抱孩子
不論是成人或是小孩,嘔吐時皆會有辛苦不適的感覺,小朋友更容易會因嘔吐而受驚大哭,所以家長可以向孩子施予輕輕的摟抱,並安慰他們,當他們的情緒平靜下來時,也能對病情有一定的幫助。

兒科專科梁赤華醫生梁赤華醫生
 
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